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5. Cipollina M, Salvatici L. Reciprocal trade agreements in gravity models: a meta-analysis. Rev Int Econ. (2010) 18:63-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9396.2009.00877.x For this study, we analyze the effects of all 107 BTA with an effective date between 1995 and 2008. To analyze the IT between the two partners in such cases, we first aggregate all trade flows within the respective trading bloc, while maintaining the homogeneous sectoral structure. Second, IT is calculated as shown below, while the corresponding C-node rate is made up of the 26 industrial sectors of the trade bloc and its final demand sector. We were re-ensaning the IT obtained in all the countries of the regional trading bloc.

Bilateral trade or clearing trade is exclusively trade between two states, especially bartering on the basis of bilateral agreements between governments, without using a strong currency for payment. Bilateral trade agreements often aim to minimize trade deficits by maintaining a compensation account on which the deficit would accumulate. 19. Maluck J, Thunder RV. A network of network perspective on world trade. PLOS ONE (2015) 10: e0133310. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133310 In this study, we examine the effectiveness of NTOs by measuring their impact on trade flows between the economic sectors of the various contracting states. To this end, we consider all trade relations as an international trade network (ITN) in which sectors (nodes) are linked by their volume of trade. The theory of networks applied to commercial economics has gained strength in recent years, since it allows to integrate topological properties in the analysis [18, 19]. Studies on the formation and structure of economic dependencies [20], the resistance of the commercial system to a failure of an industry or production facility [21, 22] and the dissemination of knowledge and technology related to growth [23] are remarkable examples. Unlike gravity models often used for related analyses [3, 5, 6], we can thus take into account higher orders of reciprocal economic interdependencies. In this work, such reliance on the higher order reflects the fact that TATs could also influence the demand and supply of sectors indirectly linked to the export and import sector.

The existence of these indirect effects was recently revealed by [24], which shows that countries more linked to trade agreements benefit from the fact that they export more than those that are more isolated. Taking into account all direct and indirect inflows and exits within and between two countries, we are putting in place a quantitative framework for measuring the interconnection of trade (IT) between two ITN countries. Taking into account all direct and indirect dependencies thus improves the SPC measure proposed recently by Wenz and Levermann [21], which is limited to the measurement of direct dependencies. In addition, we assess the impact of NTOs by assessing the evolution over time of IT, taking into account both the trend and changes in IT size after the implementation date of a trade agreement. These methods, as well as the description of the data used for this study, are presented in Section 2 of this contribution. We analyze the impact of BTAs in general based on the 107 agreements that came into force in Chapter 3 between 1995 and 2008. In particular, we compare the results of BTAs formed by the United States and China, thus providing empirical quantitative evidence of the proposed strategic differences in the negotiation of BTAs.